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NUGL Online The online version of the New Updated Guthrie List, a referential classification of the Bantu languages Compiled by Jouni Filip Maho THIS ...

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NUGL Online The online version of the New Updated Guthrie List, a referential classification of the Bantu languages Compiled by Jouni Filip Maho

THIS VERSION DATED 4 juni 2009

The 2nd New Updated Guthrie List

The present document comprises an update and expansion of Malcolm Guthrie’s 1971-classification of the Bantu languages. This is the second such update, the first being Maho (2003). This online document constitutes a simplified version of a forthcoming update currently being prepared for proper publication. The NUGL (or New Updated Guthrie List) is not offered as a prescriptive list of language names. The names used here are those that appear to be the most commonly used names in the literature, other Bantu classifications, and/or the ones explicitly preferred by authoritative sources. Obsolete, derogatory, or otherwise inapproariate names have been avoided, though some commonly used ones are retained in quotes. G43c .....................

Makunduchi, Ka(l)e, “Hadimu”

In general, the language names that appear in Guthrie’s 1971-classification have been retained, though some of the original spellings have been modernised, where necessary. Thus Guthrie’s ‘Kxhalaxadi’ appears here as ‘Kgalagadi’. Also, his many phonetic symbols have been replaced with more standard (ASCII) characters. Many of his diacritics have been omitted entirely. The language names are generally given without prefixes. The use of a prefix is grammatically obligatory in any specific Bantu language, but this text-cum-list is written in English, and I see no reason to adopt foreign inflectional paradigms when writing English prose (cfr Bailey 1995:34-35). Still, prefixes are occasionally added when, for instance, a prefixed name has become the standard English form (e.g. Kiswahili, Setswana), or when prefixed names can help to disambiguate two (orthographically) identical language names. B503 ..................... H12.......................

Vili, Ibhili Vili, Civili

Many entries below contain more than one name. Usually these are variant names, as in the examples immediately above. However, the literature is not

A REFERENTIAL CLASSIFICATION OF BANTU

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always clear about what is a variant name, a dialect name, a place name, or whatever, so sometimes a string of names may signify a set of related dialects (hyponyms). Where I know that they do, I have made it as clear as possible. Occasionally some sort of specification, such as a location, has been added in parentheses. D28a .....................

West Holoholo (Congo-Kinshasa)

Extinct languages and dialects are marked in the list with a dagger (†). D28b................... †

East Holoholo (Tanzania)

Tervuren’s J zone The list incorporates Tervuren’s J zone. This has been achieved by prefixing the letter J to the codes of relevant languages. For example, ‘E41’ appears here as ‘JE41’. Any code preceded by the letter J is, roughly speaking, equal to the same code without the letter J. In fact, either code (either the J-less E41 or the Jprefixed JE41) can be used for referential purposes without any ambiguities.

SIL’s language identifiers I have added SIL’s language identifiers to the names of those varieties that SIL recognises as languages in the online version of their Ethnologue, accessed April 2009. These language identifiers comprise three superscripted letters appended to language names, as in: A14.......................

Bonkeng bvg

SIL’s language identifiers conform to the ISO-639-9 standard.

A few notes on the accompanying maps The accompanying maps are intended to give rough locations for languages and/or dialects. The locations are approximate and indicative, and should not be read as definite statements. A multitude of sources have been consulted for these maps. Sometimes they have been consistent with each other, sometimes not.

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A10 : Lundu-Balong Group A101

A151 A15 A141 A14 A13

A101 ..................... A11 * ..................... A111 * ................... A112 * ................... A113 * ................... A114 * ................... A115 * ................... A12 * ..................... A121 * ................... A122 * ................... A123 * ................... A13 ........................ A14 ........................ A141 ...................... A15 ........................ A15A * .................. A15B *................... A15C *................... A151 ...................... (* = not in map)

Oroko bdu – Londo (ba Nanga), Lundu – Ngolo – Bima – Lotanga, Dotanga, Batanga – Koko, Lokoko, Bakoko – Londo ba Diko – Lue, Lolue, Balue, West Kundu – Mbonge – Kundu, Lokundu, Bakundu – Ekombe Balong bwt Bonkeng bvg Bafo bwt, Lefo’, “Bafaw” Manenguba mbo , Mbo – North-East Manenguba, incl. Nle mbuu, Nlaa mboo – North-West Manenguba, incl. Mienge, Nswase (Basossi) bsi – Central Manenguba, incl. Akoose (Bakossi) bss , Elung, Bafun, Bakaka (Ehob mkaa’) bqz , Babong, Mwahed, Mwaneka Nkongho nkc, Kinkwa, Upper Mbo

A REFERENTIAL CLASSIFICATION OF BANTU

A20 : Duala Group A21

A22 A23 A24

A231

A27 A221

A21 ........................ A22 ........................ A221 ...................... A23 ........................ A231 ...................... A24 ........................ A241 * ................... A25 * ..................... A26 * ..................... A261 * ................... A27 ........................ (* = not in map)

Bomboko bqm , Mboko, Wumboko Kpe bri, Mokpwe, Bakwiri Bubia bbx , Bobe Su szv, Isu, Isubu, Bimbia Kole kme, Bakolle Duala dua – Bodiman – Oli, Ewodi, Wuri – Pongo – Mongo, Mungo Limba mzd, Mulimba, Malimba

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A30 : Bubi-Benga Group A31 A32C A32a A32b A33a A33b A34

A31 ........................ A32 ........................ A32a....................... A32b ...................... A32C...................... A33a....................... A33b ...................... A34 ........................

Bobe bvb , Bubi, Ediya Batanga bnm – Banoo (at Londgi), Nohu, Noko – Bapoko (at Kribi), Puku, Naka – Batanga at Fifinda Yasa yko Kombe nui, Ngumbi Benga bng

A REFERENTIAL CLASSIFICATION OF BANTU

A40 : Basaa Group A42 A41 A45

A44 A462 A46

A461 A43a A43b

A41/42 ................... A41 ........................ A42 ........................ A43a....................... A43b ...................... A43c * ................... A44 ........................ A441 ...................... A45 ........................ A46 ........................ A461 ...................... A462 ...................... (* = not in map)

Lombi-Bankon – Barombi bbi, Rombi – Abo abb, Bankon Basaa bas , Mbene, Mvele Bakoko bkh , (North Kogo) – South Kogo Nen baz , Tunen, Banen – Aling’a, Eling Nyo’o, Nyokon Mandi lem , Lemande, Numaand Bonek ttf , Ponek, Otomb, Tuotomb Yambeta yat

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A50 : Bafia Group A51 A52

A54 A53 A501

A501 ...................... A51 ........................ A52 ........................ A53 ........................ A54 ........................

Hijuk hij Fa’ lfa, Fak, Lefa, Balom Kaalong dii, Mbong, Dimbong Kpa ksf , Rikpa’, Bafia Ngayaba ngy, Djanti, Tibea

A REFERENTIAL CLASSIFICATION OF BANTU

A60 : Sanaga Group A622 A621 A623 A62 A601 A63 A65

A601 ...................... A601A (=A61) * ... A601B *................. A601C *................. A601D * ................ A601E * ................. A601F (=A64) * .... A601G * ................ A61 ........................ A62 ........................ A62A * .................. A62B *................... A62C *................... A621 ...................... A622 ...................... A623 ...................... A63 ........................ A64 ........................ A65 ........................ (* = not in map)

Ki bag, Tuki – Ngoro, Tungoro – Cangu, Tucangu – Kombe, Tukombe – Tsingo, Tsinga, Tutsingo – Tonjo – Cenga, Bacenga, Tocenga – Mbele, Mbere, Tumbele see Tuki A601 Central Yambasa – Yangben yav – Mmala mmu – Elip ekm, Libie, Nulibie Baca baf, Nubaca Gunu yas, Nugunu Mbule mlb , Dumbule Mangisa mct, Mengisa see Tuki A601 Bati btc

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A70 : Ewondo-Fang Group A71 A73a

A73b A72

A751

A74 A75

A71 ........................ A72(a).................... A72b * ................... A72c * ................... A72d * ................... A73a....................... A73b ...................... A74 ........................ A74a * ................... A74b * ................... A75 ........................ A75A * .................. A75B *................... A75C *................... A75D * .................. A75E * ................... A75F * ................... A751 ...................... (* = not in map)

Eton eto Ewondo ewo, Yaunde – Mvele – Bakja, Badjia – Yangafek Bebele beb Gbigbil bxp, Bebil Bulu-Bene bum – Bulu – Bene Fang fan , Pangwe – Ntumu – Okak – Make – Atsi, Batsi – Nzaman, Zaman – Mveny South-West Fang

A REFERENTIAL CLASSIFICATION OF BANTU

A80 : Makaa-Njem Group A832 A831 A86a A82 A83 A81

A802

A801 A841 A842 A84

A86c A87

A86b A803 A85b A85a

A801 ...................... A802 ...................... A803 ...................... A81 ........................ A82 ........................ A83 ........................ A83A * .................. A83B *................... A83C *................... A831 ...................... A832 ...................... A84 ........................ A841 ...................... A842 ...................... A85a....................... A85b ...................... A86a....................... A86b ...................... A86c....................... A87 ........................ (* = not in map)

Gyele gyi , Bagyeli, Bakola Ukwedjo ukh , Ukhwejo Shiwe, Oshieba, Ossyeba, “Fang Makina” Mvumbo nmg , Kwasio, Ngumba, Magbea So sox Makaa mcp, South Makaa – Bebend – Mbwaanz – Shikunda, Sekunda Byep mkk, North Makaa Bekol biw , Kol, Bikele Njem njy , Nyem, Zimu Bajue, Badwee Koonzime ozm, Nzime Nkonabeeb, Konabem Bekwel bkw, Bakwele Mezime, Medjime Mpompon mgg , Mpongmpong, Bombo Mpiemo mcx, Mbimu Bomwali bmw, Sanghasangha

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A90 : Kaka Group A92a A93

A91

A92C A92b

A91 ........................ A92a....................... A92b ...................... A92C...................... A93 ........................

Kwakum kwu, Bakum Pol pmm Pomo Kweso Kako kkj, Kaka, Yaka

A REFERENTIAL CLASSIFICATION OF BANTU

B10 : Myene (Group)

B11a

B11d B11F B11c B11b

B11e

B11......................... B11a ....................... B11b....................... B11c ....................... B11d....................... B11e ....................... B11F ......................

Myene cluster mye – Mpongwe – Rongo, Orungu – Galwa – Dyumba, Adjumba – Nkomi – Enenga

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B20 : Kele Group B251 B211

B22E

B252 B203 B22b

B21

B22c B24

B25 B22a B202 B201 B22D B23

B201....................... B202....................... B203....................... B204 * ................... B205 * ................... B21......................... B211....................... B22a ....................... B22b....................... B22c ....................... B22D...................... B22E ...................... B23......................... B24......................... B25......................... B251....................... B252....................... (* = not in map)

Ndasa nda, Andasa Sig(h)u sxe, Lisighu Sama, Osamayi Ndambomo Metombola Seki(yani) syi, Bulu, Sheke Molengue bxc, Balengue West Kele keb, Kili Ngom nra, Ungom(o) Bubi Tombidi Mwesa Mbangwe zmn Wumbvu wum, Wumvu Kota koq , Ikota Shake sak, Asake Mahongwe mhb

A REFERENTIAL CLASSIFICATION OF BANTU

B30 : Tsogo Group

B32 B302

B301 B303

B305 B31 B304

B301....................... B302....................... B303....................... B304....................... B305....................... B31......................... B32.........................

Viya, Gheviva, Eviya, Avias Himba(ka) sbw, Ghehimba(ka), Simba, (Nsindak?) Bongwe, Ebongwe, Ghebongwe Pinzi pic, Ghepinzi, Apindji Vove buw , Ghevove, Pove, “Bubi” Tsogo tsv , Ghetsogo, Mitsogo Kande kbs, Okande

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B40 : Shira-Punu Group

B411 B41

B42 B403

B404 B402 B43

B401 B44

B401....................... B402....................... B403....................... B404....................... B41......................... B411....................... B42......................... B43......................... B44.........................

Bwisi bwz Varama bbg, Barama Vungu vum, Vumbu Ngubi, Ngove Shira swj, Sira Bwali Sangu snq , Shango Punu puu Lumbu lup

A REFERENTIAL CLASSIFICATION OF BANTU

B50 : Nzebi Group

B51 B52

B501

B53 B503

B501....................... B502 * ................... B503....................... B51......................... B52......................... B53......................... (* = not in map)

Wanzi wdd Mwele Vili, Ibhili Duma dma , Adouma Nzebi nzb , Njabi Tsaangi tsa, Tsengi

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B60 : Mbete Group

B61 B603 B62 B602

B63

B601 * ................... B602....................... B603....................... B61......................... B62......................... B63......................... (* = not in map)

see Mbaama B62 Kaning’i kzo Yangho ynh , Yongho Mbete mdt, Mbere Mbaama mbm, Mbamba, incl. Mpini (=B601) Nduumo nmd , Mindumbu

A REFERENTIAL CLASSIFICATION OF BANTU

B70 : Teke Group B71 B72 B701 B77a B74

B73 B77b B75

B76 B78

B701....................... B71......................... B71a *.................... B71b * ................... B72(a) .................... B72b * ................... B73......................... B73a *.................... B73b * ................... B73c *.................... B73d * ................... B74......................... B74a *.................... B74b * ................... B75......................... B76......................... B76a *.................... B76b * ................... B77a ....................... B77b....................... B78......................... (* = not in map)

Tsitsege tck Teghe teg, North Teke – Keteghe, Tege-Kali – Kateghe, Njining’i, Nzikini Ngungwel ngz , Ngungulu, North-East Teke – Mpumpu West Teke – Tsaayi tyi – Laali lli – Yaa iyx, Yaka – Tyee tyx, Tee, Kwe Central Teke – Njyunjyu nzu, Ndzindziu – Boo ebo, Boma Bali tek, incl. Teke, Tio East Teke – Mosieno – Ng’ee Kukwa kkw (South Teke) Fu(u)mu ifm (South Teke) Wuumu, Wumbu

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B80 : Tiene-Yanzi Group B821 B864 B865 B82 B861 B862

B81 B822 B83 B85

B86 B84 B863

B81......................... B82......................... B821....................... B822....................... B83......................... B84 (=B87) ............ B85......................... B85a *.................... B85b * ................... B85c *.................... B85d * ................... B85e *.................... B85F * ................... B86......................... B861....................... B862....................... B863....................... B864....................... B865....................... B87......................... (* = not in map)

Tiene tii, Tende Boma boh, Buma Mpe, Kempee Nunu Mfinu zmf, Funika, Mfununga Mpuono zmp, Mpuun, (Mbuun?), (Mbunda?) Yans yns, Yanzi – Mbiem, West Yansi – East Yans – Yeei – Nsong, Tsong soo , Itsong, Ntsuo, “Songo” – Mpur, Mput – Tsambaan Di diz , Dinga, Dzing Ngul nlo, incl. Ngwi Lwel, Kelwer Mpiin, Pindi West Ngongo Nzadi see Mpuono B84

A REFERENTIAL CLASSIFICATION OF BANTU

C10 : Ngondi Group C12 C11

C102 C103 C13

C105 C141 C15 C101

C14 C142 C162 C161

C143

C101....................... C102....................... C103....................... C104 * ................... C105....................... C11......................... C12......................... C12a *.................... C12b * ................... C13......................... C14......................... C141....................... C142....................... C143....................... C15......................... C16......................... C161....................... C162....................... (* = not in map)

C16

Dibole bvx, Babole Ngando ngd Kota, Dikota Yaka axk, Aka, incl. Babenzele Mbenga Ngondi ndn, Ngundi Pande-Gongo bkj – Pande – Bogongo, Gongo Mbati mdn Bomitaba zmx, Mbomitaba, “Bamitaba” Enyele, Inyele Bondongo Mbonzo, Impfondo Bongili bui, Bongiri Lobala loq, incl. Likoka, Iboko bkp Bomboli bml , Bombongo Bozaba bzo

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C20 : Mboshi Group C23 C21

C22 C26

C24 C25

C27

C201 * ................... C21......................... C22......................... C23......................... C24......................... C25......................... C25A *................... C25B * ................... C25C * ................... C25D *................... C25E * ................... C26......................... C27......................... (* = not in map)

Bwenyi Mboko mdu , Mboxo, incl. Ngare (=C23) Akwa akw see Mboko C21 Koyo koh Mbos(h)i mdw – Bunji, Mbonzi – Olee – Ondinga – Ngolo – Eboi Kwala kwc, Likwala Kuba kxx , Likuba

A REFERENTIAL CLASSIFICATION OF BANTU

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C30 : Bangi-Ntomba Group (I) C31b C36g C302 C301 C37 C371 C321 C372 C373 C31a C312 C36H C351 C36a C323 C36c C35C C36d C31C C32

C301....... C302....... C31a ....... C31b....... C31C...... C311....... C312....... C313 * ... C314 * ... C315....... C32.........

C311 C36e C315 C35b C322 C33 C34 C35a

Doko Bolondo bzm Loi biz , incl. Likila lie Ngiri Nunu, Kenunu Maba(a)le mmz Ndo(o)bo ndw Litoka Balobo Enga, Baenga-Bolombo Bangi bni, incl. Liku, Moi mow, Rebu C321....... Binza liz, Libinza C322....... Dzamba, Zamba C323....... Mpama C33......... Sengele szg C34......... Sakata cluster skt C34A *... – Sakata proper C34B * ... – Djia, Wadia C34C * ... – Bai, Kibay C34D *... – Tuku, Ketu, Batow (* = not in map)

C35a ...... C35b ...... C35C ..... C351 ...... C36 ........ C36a ...... C36b * ... C36c ...... C36d ...... C36e ...... C36f * .... C36g ...... C36H ..... C37 ........ C371 ...... C372 ...... C373 ...... C374 * ...

Ntomba nto , incl. NtombaBikoro Bolia bli Sakanyi, Lotsakani Mbompo, Mpombo Losengo cluster lse – Poto, Pfoto, incl. Yakata – Mpesa, Limpesa – Mbudza – Mangala, Ngala – Boloki bkt – Kangana – Ndolo ndl – Yamongeri ymg Budza bja, Buja Tembo tmv, Motembo Kunda Gbuta, Egbuta Babale

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C40 : Ngombe Group C41C

C42 C415 C41B C401 C43

C411

C403

C402

C44

C413 C412

C41A

C45

C414

C401....................... C402....................... C403....................... C41......................... C41A...................... C41B...................... C41C...................... C41D...................... C411....................... C412....................... C413....................... C414....................... C415....................... C42......................... C43......................... C43A *................... C43B * ................... C43C * ................... C43D *................... C44......................... C441....................... C45......................... C45A *................... C45B *................... C45C * ................... (* = not in map)

C441 C41D

Pagibete pae see under Bwa C44 Kango kty , Likango Ngombe ngc – Ngombe of the Congo River – Ngombe at Bosobolo, North Ngombe – Ngombe at Libenge, North-West Ngombe – Binza, East Ngombe Bomboma bws, incl. Ebuku, Lingonda Bamwe bmg, incl. Lifonga, Likata, Libobi Dzando dzn Ligendza lgz Likula, Kula Bwela bwl, Lingi Benge-Baati – Baati – Benge – Boganga, Boyanga – Ligbe Bwa (cluster) bww, Boa, incl. Yewu (=C402) Bango bbm , Babango, South-West Bwa Ngelima agh, Angba – Beo – Buru – Tungu

A REFERENTIAL CLASSIFICATION OF BANTU

C50 : Soko-Kele Group C52

C51

C501

C502 C56 C54

C53

C55

C501....................... C502....................... C51......................... C52......................... C53......................... C54......................... C55......................... C56.........................

Likile Linga, Elinga Mbesa zms So soc, Soko, Eso Poke pof , Pfoke, Topoke, Gesogo Lombo loo, Turumbu Kele khy, Lokele Foma fom

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C60 : Mongo-Nkundo Group C611 C61 K J B FA D LP E M H I G C N O

C61......................... C61A...................... C61B...................... C61C...................... C61D...................... C61E ...................... C61F ...................... C61G...................... C61H...................... C61I ....................... C61J ....................... C61K...................... C61L ...................... C61M ..................... C61N...................... C61O...................... C61P ...................... C611....................... C62 * ..................... C63......................... (* = not in map)

C63

Mongo-Nkundo lol, Lomongo, Lonkundo – Bakutu – Bokote, incl. Ngata – Booli – Bosaka – Konda, Ekonda, incl. Bosanga-Ekonda – Ekota – Emoma – Ikongo, incl. Lokalo-Lomela – Iyembe – Lionje, Nsongo, Ntomba – Yamongo – Mbole, incl. Nkengo, Yenge, Yongo, Bosanga-Mbole, Mangilongo, Lwankamba – Nkole – South Mongo, incl. Bolongo, Belo, Panga, Acitu – Yailima – Ngombe-Lomela, Longombe, Ngome à Múná Bafoto, Batswa de l’Equateur Lalia lal Ngando nxd , Bongando

A REFERENTIAL CLASSIFICATION OF BANTU

C70 : Tetela Group

C701 C75

C76

C74 C73

C72

C71

C701....................... C71......................... C72......................... C73......................... C74......................... C75......................... C76.........................

Langa Tetela tll, incl. Hamba hba Kusu ksv , Fuluka, Kongola Nkutu nkw, Nkucu Yela yel , Boyela Kela kel , Lemba Ombo oml

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C80 : Bushoong Group

C82

C81

C84 C85

C81......................... C82......................... C83......................... C83A *................... C83B * ................... C83C * ................... C83D *................... C84......................... C85......................... (* = not in map)

C83

Dengese dez , Nkutu Hendo soe , Lohendo, “Songomeno” Bushoong buf, Kuba – Ngeende, Ngendi – Ngongo – Pyaang, Pianga, Piong – Shuwa, Loshoobo Lele lel Wongo won , Tukungo

A REFERENTIAL CLASSIFICATION OF BANTU

D10 : Mbole-Enya Group D14A D11

D12

D13 D141

D11 ........................ D12 ........................ D13 ........................ D14 ........................ D14A ..................... D14B...................... D141 ......................

D14B

Mbole mdq Lengola lej Metoko zmq, Mituku Enya gey, Ena, Genya – Enya at Kisangani – Enya at Kongolo Zura, Zula

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D20 : Lega-Holoholo Group D201 D22

D211 D21 D23 D24

D25

D251 D26 D27

D201 ...................... D21 ........................ D211 ...................... D22 ........................ D23 ........................ D24 ........................ D25 ........................ D251 ......................

? D28a

D28b D281 D282

Liko lik, Lika Ba(a)li bcp, South-East Bua (Bwa) Kango kzy , Dikango Amba rwm, Kwamba, Rwamba Komo kmw, Kumu Songola sod, Songoora, North Binja Lega-Mwenga lgm, Lega-Ntara, Isile Lega-Malinga lea, Lega-Shabunda, incl. Kanu khx, Kwami ktf D26 ........................ Zimba zmb, Nyangwe, South Binja D27 ........................ Bangubangu bnx D28 ........................ Holoholo hoo D28a....................... – West Holoholo (Congo-Kinshasa), Guha, Kalanga D28b .................... † – East Holoholo (Tanzania) D281 ...................... Tumbwe, Etumbwe D282 ...................... Lumbwe

A REFERENTIAL CLASSIFICATION OF BANTU

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D30 : Bira-Nyali Group D301

D336

D303

D302

D304

D306 D332 D333 D335 D334 D31

D301 ...................... D302 .................. ?† D303 ...................... D304 .................... † D305 .................. ?† D306 .................. ?† D307 * ............... ?† D308 * ............... ?† D31 ........................ D311 ...................... D312 ...................... D313 * ................... D32 ........................ D33 ........................ D331 ...................... D332 ...................... D333 ...................... D334 ...................... D335 ...................... D336 .................. ?† (* = not in map)

D305

D312

D33 D331 D32 D311

Kari kbj, Kare Guru bqu, Boguru, Kogoro Ngbinda nbd, Ngminda Homa hom Nyanga-li nyc Gbati-ri gti Mayeka myc Bodo (CAR) boy Bhele bhy, Peri, Pere Bila bip, Forest Bira Kaiku kkq Ibutu, Mbuttu Bira brf , Plains Bira, Sese, Sumbura Nyali nlj, “Huku” Bvanuma vau, South Nyali Budu buu, Bodo, Ebudu Ndaaka ndk Mbo zmw, Imbo Beeke bkf, Ibeeke Ngbee jgb, Lingbee

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D40 : Nyanga Group

D43

D41 ........................ D42 ........................ D43 ........................

see under JD40 see under JD40 Nyanga nyj

A REFERENTIAL CLASSIFICATION OF BANTU

D50 : Bembe-Buyi Group

D54

D55

D501-D531 ............ D54 ........................ D55 ........................ D56 ........................

see under JD50 Bembe bmb Buyi byi see under JD50

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D60 : Ruanda-Rundi Group SEE UNDER JD60

E10 : Nyoro-Ganda Group SEE UNDER JE10

E20 : Haya-Jita Group SEE UNDER JE20

E30 : Masaba-Luhya Group SEE UNDER JE30

A REFERENTIAL CLASSIFICATION OF BANTU

E40 : Temi Group

E46

E401-E45 ............... E46 .........................

see under JE40 Temi soz, Ketemi, “Sonjo”

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JOUNI FILIP MAHO

E50 : Kikuyu-Kamba Group / Central Kenya Bantu E53

E531 E54

E541

E51

E55

E56

E51 ......................... E52 ......................... E53 ......................... E531 ....................... E54 ......................... E541 ....................... E55 ......................... E56 .........................

Kikuyu kik, Gikuyu Embo ebu Mero mer, Meru Mwimbi-Muthambi mws Tharaka thk Cuka cuh , Chuka Kamba kam Daisu dhs, “Se(n)geju”

E52

A REFERENTIAL CLASSIFICATION OF BANTU

41

E60 : Chaga Group

E621

E623 E65

E63 E622

E61 ......................... E62a ....................... E62b ....................... E62c ....................... E621 ....................... E621A (=E61) *..... E621B (=E62a) * ... E621C * ................. E621D * ................. E621E * ................. E621F * ................. E622 ....................... E622A (=E62a) *... E622B * ................. E622C (=E62b) *... E622D * ................. E623 (=E62c)......... E623A * ................. E623B * ................. E623C * ................. E623D * ................. E63 ......................... E64 ......................... E65 ......................... (* = not in map)

E64

see West Kilimanjaro E621 see West Kilimanjaro E621, Central Kilimanjaro E622 see Central Kilimanjaro E622 see Rombo E623 West Kilimanjaro, Chaga – Rwa rwk, Rwo, Meru – Mashami jmc, “Hai” – Siha – Kiwoso, incl. Kindi, Kombo, Mweka – Masama – Ng’uni Central Kilimanjaro, Chaga – Mochi old – Mbokomu – Wuunjo vun , Kivunjo-Chaga, incl. Kiruwa, Kilema, Mamba, Morang’u (Marangu), Mwika – Uru Rombo rof – Useri, Kiseri – Mashati – Mkuu – Keni Arusha-Chini, “Rusha”, “Kuma” Kahe hka Gweno gwe

42

JOUNI FILIP MAHO

E70 : Nyika-Taita Group

E701 E72

E74 E741 E73

E701 ....................... E71 ......................... E71A * ................... E71B * ................... E72 ......................... E72a * .................... E72b *.................... E72c * .................... E72d *.................... E72e * .................... E72F * ................... E72G * ................... E72H * ................... E73-732 * .............. E73 ......................... E731 *................ ?† E732 *.................... E74 ......................... E74a (=G21) * ....... E74b ....................... E74C * ................... E741 (=E74b) ........ (* = not in map)

Elwana mlk, Mala(n)kote Pokomo, Pfokomo – Upper Pokomo pkb – Lower Pokomo poj, Malachini North Mijikenda, Nyika – Giryama nyf – Kauma – Conyi coh – Duruma dug – Rabai – Jibana – Kambe – Ribe South Mijikenda – Digo dig – Segeju seg – Degere Taita dav – Dabida tvs , Taveta, “Tubeta” – see Sagala E741 – Kasigau Sagala tga

E71

A REFERENTIAL CLASSIFICATION OF BANTU

F10 : Tongwe-Bende Group

F11

F12

F11 ......................... F12 .........................

Tongwe tny Bende bdp

43

44

JOUNI FILIP MAHO

F20 : Sukuma-Nyamwezi Group F21 F23 F22 F24 F25

F21 ......................... F21A * ................... F21B * ................... F21C * ................... F21D * ................... F21E * ................... F21F *.................... F21G * ................... F21H * ................... F22 ......................... F22A * ................... F22B * ................... F22C * ................... F22D * ................... F22E * ................... F22F *.................... F22G * ................... F22H * ................... F22I *..................... F22J * .................... F22K * ................... F23 ......................... F24 ......................... F25 ......................... (* = not in map)

Sukuma suk, “Gwe” – Kemunasukuma – Kemunangweeli – Kiiya – Kemunadakama – Nasa – SumaaBu – Nelaa – Ntuzu Nyamwezi num – Galaganza – Mweri – Konongo kcz – Nyanyembe – Takama – Nangwila – Ilwana – Uyui – Rambo – Ndaala – Nyambiu Sumbwa suw Kimbu kiv Bungu wun

A REFERENTIAL CLASSIFICATION OF BANTU

F30 : Nilamba-Rangi Group

F34 F31

F32

F31 ......................... F31A * ................... F31B * ................... F31C * ................... F31D * ................... F31E * ................... F32 ......................... F33 ......................... F34 ......................... (* = not in map)

Nilamba nim , Ilamba – Central Laamba, Kinilaamba – Ihaanzu isn , Isanzu – Ushoola, Kinaushoola – Iambi, Nyambi – Mbuga Nyaturu rim, Remi Rangi lag, Langi, Irangi Mbugwe mgz, Buwe

F33

45

46

JOUNI FILIP MAHO

G10 : Gogo-Kagulu Group

G12 G11

G11 ........................ G12 ........................

Gogo gog Kagulu kki, North Sagara, Megi, incl. Mangahele (Mangaheri)

A REFERENTIAL CLASSIFICATION OF BANTU

47

G20 : Shambala Group

G23 G22 G221

G21 ........................ G22 ........................ G22A * .................. G22B *................... G221 ...................... G23 ........................ G24 ........................ (* = not in map)

G24

see Dabida E74a Pare asa, Pare-Asu, Asu, Chasu – North Pare – South Pare, incl. Gonja, Mbaga Mbugu, Kimbugu cha Kawaida, Outer Mbugu, Normal Mbugu Shambala ksb, Shambaa Bondei bou

48

JOUNI FILIP MAHO

G30 : Zigula-Zaramo Group

G34

G35

G31 G311

G36

G301

G39

G32 G38

G301 ...................... G31 ........................ G311 ...................... G32 ........................ G33 ........................ G34 ........................ G35 ........................ G36 ........................ G37 ........................ G38 ........................ G39 ........................

G33 G37

Doe doe Zigula ziw, Zigua Mushungulu xma (Somalia), incl. Shanbara Ngh’wele cwe, incl. Kwere Zaramo zaj , Dzalamo Ngulu ngp Ruguru ruf , Luguru Kami kcu Kutu kdc Vidunda vid Sagala sbm

A REFERENTIAL CLASSIFICATION OF BANTU

49

G40 : Swahili Group G412

Appr. extent of the entire Swahili-speaking area

G41 G42a G42E G42b G42F G42G G42H

G43a G43b

G42c G42d G43F G402

G43c G43D G43E G44a G44b

G403 G44C G44D

G401 ...... see Mgao G43F G402 ...... Makwe ymk G403 ...... Mwani wmw G404 * . † Sidi (Pakistan), Habsi G41-43 ... Swahili swh, Kiswahili G41 ........ – Tikuu, Tikulu, Bajuni, Gunya G411 * . † – Socotra Swahili G412 ...... – Mwiini, Miini, Barawa, Mbalazi G42a....... – Amu, Pate, Siu, † Ozi G42b ...... – Mombasa Swahili, Mvita, Ngare, Jomvu, Changamwe, Kilindini G42c....... – Mrima, Mtang’ata, † Lugha ya Zamani G42d ...... – Unguja, Kiunguja G42E...... – Mambrui, Malindi (* = not in map)

G42F...... G42G ..... G42H ..... G42I *.... G43a ...... G43b ...... G43c ......

– – – – – – –

Fundi, Chifundi Chwaka Vumba Nosse Be (Madagascar) Pemba Tumbatu Makunduchi, Ka(l)e, “Hadimu” G43D ..... – Mafia, Mbwera G43E ... † – Kilwa G43F.. ?† – Mgao, Kimgao G44 ........ Comorian swb G44a ...... – Ngazija zdj , Shingazidja G44b ...... – Njuani wni , Hinzua G44C ..... – Mwali wlc G44D ..... – Maore

50

JOUNI FILIP MAHO

G50 : Pogolo-Ndamba Group

G52

G51 ........................ G52 ........................

Pogolo poy, Pogoro Ndamba ndj

G51

A REFERENTIAL CLASSIFICATION OF BANTU

51

G60 : Bena-Kinga Group

G61

G62

G66 G651 G65 G67

G63 G64

G61 ........................ G62 ........................ G63 ........................ G64 ........................ G65 ........................ G651 ...................... G66 ........................ G67 ........................

Sango sbp , Rori Hehe heh Bena bez Pangwa pbr Kinga zga Magoma gmx Wanji wbi Kisi kiz

52

JOUNI FILIP MAHO

H10 : Kikongo Group H112 H131 H111 H13 H12

H14 H15

H11

c b ef g d h a

H11 ........................ H111 ...................... H112 ...................... H112A * ................ H112B *................. H12 ........................ H13 ........................ H131 ...................... H14 ........................ H15 ........................ H16 ........................ H16a....................... H16b ...................... H16c....................... H16d ...................... H16e....................... H16f ....................... H16g ...................... H16h ...................... (* = not in map)

H16

Bembe beq, incl. Keenge Hangala, Ghaangala Kamba-Doondo – Kamba xku – Doondo dde Vili vif, Civili Kunyi njx Suundi sdj, Kisuundi, incl. Sundi-Kifouma, SuundiKimongo Ndingi (Cabinda), Ndinzi Mboka (Cabinda) Kikongo kon , Kongo – South Kongo, incl. Kisikongo kwy, Mboma, Songo, Solongo – Central Kongo, incl. Suundi, Mazinga, Manyanga – Yombe yom – West Kongo, incl. Woyo, Fiote, Kakongo, Kako – Bwende, incl. Sonde – Laadi ldi – East Kongo, incl. Santu, Ntandu – South-East Kongo, incl. Nkanu, Zoombo, Pende

A REFERENTIAL CLASSIFICATION OF BANTU

H20 : Kimbundu Group

H21

H24 H22 H23

H21 ........................ H21a * ................... H21b * ................... H22 ........................ H23 ........................ H24 ........................ (* = not in map)

Mbundu cluster kmb – Kimbundu, Ngola – Mbamba, Njinga Sama smd Bolo blv , Haka Songo nsx, Nsongo

53

54

JOUNI FILIP MAHO

H30 : Yaka Group H31

H32 H321

H35

H34

H31 ........................ H32 ........................ H321 ...................... H33 ........................ H34 ........................ H35 ........................

Yaka yaf, Kiyaka, incl. Ngoongo noq, Pelende ppp, Lonzo lnz Suku sub So(o)nde shc, Kisonde see Holo L12b Mbangala mxg Shinji, Yungo

A REFERENTIAL CLASSIFICATION OF BANTU

H40 : Mbala-Hunganna Group

H42

H41

H41 ........................ H42 ........................

Mbala mdp Hunganna hum , Huana

55

56

JOUNI FILIP MAHO

JD40 : Konzo-Ndandi Group

JD42

JD41 ....................... JD42 ....................... JD43 .......................

JD41

Konzo koo , Konjo Nandi nnb, Ndandi, Kinande, incl. Shu, Yira see under D40

A REFERENTIAL CLASSIFICATION OF BANTU

JD50 : Shi-Hunde Group

JD51 JD531 JD53 JD501

JD502 JD56

JD501 ..................... JD502 ..................... JD51 ....................... JD52 ....................... JD53 ....................... JD531 ..................... JD54 ....................... JD55 ....................... JD56 .......................

Nyindu nyg Yaka Hunde hke , Kobi Haavu hav Shi shr, Nyabungu Tembo tbt see under D50 see under D50 Bwari kcw, Kabwari

JD52

57

58

JOUNI FILIP MAHO

JD60 : Ruanda-Rundi Group

JD61

JD65

JD62 JD63 JD64 JD66

JD631 JD67

JD61 ....................... JD62 ....................... JD63 ....................... JD631 ..................... JD64 ....................... JD65 ....................... JD66 ....................... JD67 .......................

Ruanda kin, Kinyarwanda Rundi run, Kirundi Fuliiro flr Vira job, Joba Subi suj, Shubi, “Sinja” Hangaza han Ha haq, Kiha Vinza vin

A REFERENTIAL CLASSIFICATION OF BANTU

JE10 : Nyoro-Ganda Group JE101 JE11 JE103

JE121

JE17 JE16 JE18

JE102 JE12 JE13/14 JE15

JE101 ..................... JE102 ..................... JE103 ..................... JE11 ....................... JE12 ....................... JE121 ..................... JE13/14 .................. JE13 * .................... JE14 * .................... JE15 ....................... JE16 ....................... JE17 ....................... JE18 ....................... (* = not in map)

Gungu rub Talinga-Bwisi tlj Ruli ruc , Luduuli Nyoro nyo, Kyopi Tooro ttj Hema nix Nkore-Kiga – Nyankore nyn , Nkole, (incl. Hima?) – Kiga cgg , Ciga Ganda lug, Luganda Soga xog , incl. Kenyi lke Gwere gwr West Nyala

59

60

JOUNI FILIP MAHO

JE20 : Haya-Jita Group

JE22 JE21

JE221

JE21 ....................... JE22 ....................... JE22A * ................. JE22B * ................. JE22C * ................. JE22D * ................. JE22E *.................. JE22F * .................. JE22G * ................. JE221 ..................... JE23 ....................... JE24 ....................... JE25 ....................... JE251 ..................... JE252 ..................... JE253 ..................... (* = not in map)

Nyambo now , “Karagwe” Haya hay – Kyamutwara – Bugabo – Bukara – Ziba, Kiziba – Hanja, Ki(h)anja – Hangiro, Ihangiro – Missenyi Rashi, Kirashi Zinza zin, Dzindza Kerebe ked Jita jit Kwaya kya Kara reg, Regi Ruri, Rori

JE25 JE251

JE253 JE24 JE23 JE252

A REFERENTIAL CLASSIFICATION OF BANTU

61

JE30 : Masaba-Luhya Group JE31

JE341

JE35

JE342 JE32

JE34 JE343

JE31 ....................... JE31a * .................. JE31b * .................. JE31c * .................. JE31D * ................. JE31E *.................. JE31F * .................. JE31G * ................. JE32 ....................... JE32a * .................. JE32b * .................. JE32C * ................. JE32D * ................. JE32E *.................. JE32F * .................. JE33 ....................... JE34 ....................... JE341 ..................... JE342 ..................... JE343 ..................... JE35 ....................... (* = not in map)

Masaba cluster myx – Gisu – Kisu – Bukusu bxk – Syan – Tachon, Tatsoni – Dadiri – Buya Lu(h)yia cluster luy – Hanga, Wanga – Tsotso – Marama – Kisa – Kabarasi, Kabras – East Nyala nle Nyore nyd Saamia Xaayo, Khayo Marachi Songa Nyuli nuj, Nyole

JE33

62

JOUNI FILIP MAHO

JE40 : Logooli-Kuria Group JE403 JE431 JE432 JE433 JE434 JE405

JE41 JE411 JE412 JE413

JE406

JE42 JE43 JE401 JE404 JE44 JE45 JE402

JE401 ..................... JE402 ..................... JE403 .....................

Ngur(u)imi ngq, Ngoreme Ikizu ikz Suba suh , incl. Ivwang’ano, Gase, Kune, Muulu, Suuna, Ngoe JE404 ..................... Shashi szk , Sizaki JE405 ..................... Kabwa cwa JE406 ................... † Singa sgm, Cula JE407 * ................ † Ware wre JE41 ....................... Logooli rag, Ragoli JE411 ..................... Idaxo ida, Itoxo JE412 ..................... Isuxa ida, Isukha JE413 ..................... Tiriki ida JE42 ....................... Gusii guz , Kisii JE43 ....................... Kuria kuj, Koria JE431 ..................... Simbiti JE432 ..................... Hacha JE433 ..................... Surwa JE434 ..................... Sweta JE44 ....................... Zanaki zak JE45 ....................... Ikoma ntk, Nata JE46 ....................... see under E40 (* = not in map)

A REFERENTIAL CLASSIFICATION OF BANTU

K10 : Ciokwe-Luchazi Group K11

K12a

K14

K17 K18

K15

K16 K12b

K11 ........................ K12a....................... K12b ...................... K13 ........................ K14 ........................ K15 ........................ K16 ........................ K17 ........................ K18 ........................

K13

Ciokwe cjk, Chokwe, Tshokwe Luimbi lum Ngangela nba, Nyemba Luchazi lch , Lujazi, Ponda Lwena lue, Luvale Mbunda mck, Mbuunda Nyengo nye Mbwela mfu Nkangala nkn

63

64

JOUNI FILIP MAHO

K20 : Lozi (Group)

K21

K21 ........................

Lozi loz, “Kolololo”

A REFERENTIAL CLASSIFICATION OF BANTU

K30 : Luyana Group

K322 K352 K354 K35

K321

K353

K32 K31 K37

K34

K351 K36

K33 K331

K31 ........................ K32 ........................ K321 ...................... K322 ...................... K33 ........................ K331 ...................... K332 ......................

K332

K333

Luyana lyn, Luyi Mbowe mxo – Mbume – Liyuwa Kwangali kwn, Rukwangari, incl. Mbundza see Manyo K322 Manyo, Rumanyo, incl. Gciriku diu (Dciriku), Sambyu (=K331) K333 ...................... Mbukushu mhw, Thimbukushu K334 .................... † Mbogedu, “Manyo”, “Rumanyo” K34 ........................ Mashi mho , Masi, incl. Kwandu K35 ........................ Simaa sie K351 ...................... Mulonga K352 ...................... Mwenyi K353 ...................... Koma, Makoma K354 ...................... Imilangu K36 ........................ Shanjo K37 ........................ Kwangwa K371 * ................... – Kwandi (* = not in map)

65

66

JOUNI FILIP MAHO

K40 : Subiya-Totela Group

K411

K41 K42

K402

K401

K401 ...................... K402 ...................... K41 ........................ K411 ...................... K42 ........................

see Ikuhane K42 Fwe fwe Totela of Zambia ttl Totela of Namibia Ikuhane sbs, Subiya, incl. Mbalangwe (=K401)

A REFERENTIAL CLASSIFICATION OF BANTU

L10 : Pende Group L13 L11 ?? L12a

L12b

L101....................... L11 ......................... L12a ....................... L12b (=H33) .......... L13 .........................

L101

Sonde Pende pem , Pheende Samba smx, Tsamba, Tsaam Holo hol, Holu, Hongu Kwese kws, Kwezo, Pindi

67

68

JOUNI FILIP MAHO

L20 : Songe Group L231

L24

L202

L22

L221

L201 *.................... L202 ....................... L21 ......................... L21A * ................... L21B * ................... L21C * ................... L22 ......................... L221 ....................... L23 ......................... L231 ....................... L24 ......................... (* = not in map)

L21

L23

Budya Yazi Kete kcv , Tshikete, Ciket – Kete proper, East Kete – Kete-Kuba, North Kete – Kete-Lulua, South-West Kete Mbagani, Binji Lwalwa lwa , Lwalu Songe sop , Yembe Binji bpj, Bindji Luna-Inkongo luj

A REFERENTIAL CLASSIFICATION OF BANTU

L30 : Luba Group

L31b

L31a

L34

L331 L32 L33

L301 L35

L301 ....................... L31 ......................... L31a ....................... L31b ....................... L32 ......................... L33 ......................... L33 ......................... L331 ....................... L35 .........................

Kebwe Luba-Lulua lua – Luba-Kasai, Tshiluba, Ciluba – Lulua, Luluwa, West Luba Kanyoka kny Luba-Katanga lub, Kiluba Luba-Katanga lub, Kiluba Ze(e)la, Kizela Sanga sng , Garengaze, South Luba

69

70

JOUNI FILIP MAHO

L40 : Kaonde (Group) L41

L41 .........................

Kaonde kqn , Kahonde

A REFERENTIAL CLASSIFICATION OF BANTU

L50 : Lunda Group L511 L51 L53 L52

L51 ......................... L511 ....................... L52 ......................... L53 .........................

Salampasu slx – Luntu Lunda lun Ruund rnd, Luwunda

71

72

JOUNI FILIP MAHO

L60 : Nkoya (Group)

L601

L61

L62 L602 L603

L60 ......................... L601 ....................... L602 ....................... L603 ....................... L61 ......................... L62 .........................

Nkoya cluster nka – Kolwe, Lukolwe – Lushangi – Shasha, Mashasha – Mbwera, Mbwela – Nkoya proper

A REFERENTIAL CLASSIFICATION OF BANTU

M10 : Fipa-Mambwe Group

M11 M12 M13 M131 M14/15

M11........................ M12........................ M13........................ M13A *.................. M13B * .................. M13C * .................. M13D *.................. M13E * .................. M13F * .................. M13G *.................. M13H *.................. M13I * ................... M131...................... M14/15................... M14 *..................... M15 *..................... (* = not in map)

Pimbwe piw Rungwa rnw Fipa fip, Icifipa – Fipa-Sukuma, Sukuuma, Icisukuuma – South Fipa – Kandaasi, Icikandaasi – Siiwa, Icisiiwa – Nkwaamba, Icinkwaamba – Kwa, Icikwa – Kwaafi, Icikwaafi – Ntile, Icintile, Cile, “Yantili” – Peemba, Icipeemba Ku(u)lwe Mambwe-Rungu mgr – Rungu, Lungu – Mambwe

73

74

JOUNI FILIP MAHO

M20 : Nyiha-Safwa Group

M22 M21 M201

M24

M26 M27

M201...................... M201A *................ M201B * ................ M201C * ................ M202...................... M21........................ M22........................ M23........................ M23A *.................. M23B * .................. M23C * .................. M23D *.................. M24........................ M25........................ M25A *.................. M25B * .................. M25C * .................. M25D *.................. M25E * .................. M26........................ M27........................ (* = not in map)

M23 M25

M202

Lambya lai, Rambia – North Lambya (Tanzania) – Central Lambya (Malawi) – South Lambya (Zambia) Sukwa Wanda wbh, Wandia Mwanga mwn, Namwanga Nyiha nih, Nyika – West Nyika – Nyiha of Mbozi, Central Nyiha – Nyika of Rungwe, East Nyika – South Nyiha (Zambia) Malila mgq Safwa sbk – Safwa of Mbeya – Mbwila, Uleenje – Soongwe – Polooto, Poroto – Guruka Iwa Tambo

A REFERENTIAL CLASSIFICATION OF BANTU

M30 : Nyakyusa-Ngonde Group

M301 M302 M31

M301...................... M302.................. ?† M31........................ M31A *.................. M31B * .................. M31C * .................. M31D *.................. M31E * .................. (* = not in map)

Ndali ndh Penja Nyakyusa-Ngonde nyy, “Sokili” – Nyakyusa proper, Nyekyosa – Kukwe, Ngumba – Mwamba, Lugulu, “Sokelo” – Ngonde – Kaaselya, Selya

75

76

JOUNI FILIP MAHO

M40 : Bemba Group M41

M42

M401

M402

M401...................... M402...................... M41........................ M42........................

Bwile bwc Aushi auh, Usi Taabwa tap , Rungu, incl. Shila Bemba bem, Icibemba, incl. Bangweulu Twa

A REFERENTIAL CLASSIFICATION OF BANTU

M50 : Lala-Bisa-Lamba Group

M51/52

M542 M55 M53 M54 M541

M51/52................... M51 *..................... M52 *..................... M521...................... M522...................... M53........................ M54........................ M541...................... M542...................... M55........................ (* = not in map)

Lala-Bisa leb – Bi(i)sa, Wisa – Lala Ambo Luano Swaka Lamba lab Lima, Bulima Temba Seba kdg , Shishi

M522

M521

77

78

JOUNI FILIP MAHO

M60 : Lenje-Tonga Group / Bantu-Botatwe Group M611 M63

M61

M633 M62 M632

M61........................ M611...................... M62........................ M63........................ M631...................... M632...................... M633...................... M64........................

M631 M64

Lenje leh, Ciina Mukuni Lukanga Twa Soli sby Ila ilb Sala shq Lundwe Kafue Twa Tonga toi, incl. Leya, Mala, Plateau Tonga, Valley Tonga, Ndawe, Dombe dov

A REFERENTIAL CLASSIFICATION OF BANTU

79

N10 : Manda Group N13 N11

N101

N15

N121

N101 ...................... N102 ...................... N11 ........................ N12 ........................ N121 ...................... N13 ........................ N14 ........................ N15 ........................

Ndendeule dne Nindi nxi Manda mgs, Manda-Matumba Ngoni of Tanzania ngo Ngoni of Malawi Matengo mgv Mpoto mpa Tonga tog, Siska

N102

N12 N14

80

JOUNI FILIP MAHO

N20 : Tumbuka Group N21 N201

N201 ...................... N21 ........................ N21a * ................... N21b * ................... N21c * ................... N21d * ................... N21e * ................... N21f * .................... N21g * ................... (* = not in map)

Mwera of Mbamba Bay mjh Tumbuka cluster tum, Chitumbuka – Tumbuka proper – Poka – Kamanga, Henga – Senga – Yombe – Fungwe – Wenya

A REFERENTIAL CLASSIFICATION OF BANTU

N30 : Chewa-Nyanja (Group)

N31

N31 ........................ N31a * ................... N31b * ................... N31c * ................... N31D * .................. (* = not in map)

Chewa-Nyanja nya, Nyanja-Chewa, Chichewa – Nyanja – Chewa, Cewa – Manganja – Nyasa (Mozambique), Nyasa-Cewa

81

82

JOUNI FILIP MAHO

N40 : Senga-Sena Group

N41 N441

N42 N43 N44

N41 ........................ N42 ........................ N43 ........................ N44 ........................ N441 ...................... N45 * ..................... N46 * ..................... (* = not in map)

Nsenga nse, Cinsenga, Senga, incl. P(h)imbi phm Kunda kdn , Chikunda Nyungwe nyu , Chinyungwe, Tete Sena seh , incl. Podzo (=N46), Rue/Barwe bwg (=N45) Sena-Malawi swk see under Sena N44 see under Sena N44

A REFERENTIAL CLASSIFICATION OF BANTU

83

P10 : Matuumbi Group

P12 P11 P15

P14

P11/12.................... P11 ......................... P12 ......................... P13 ......................... P14 ......................... P15 ........................

Ndengereko-Rufiji – Ndengereko ndg – Rufiji rui, Ruihi Matuumbi mgw, Kimatuumbi Ngindo nnq Mbunga mgy

P13

84

JOUNI FILIP MAHO

P20 : Yao Group

P22 P21

P24 P25

P23

P21/22.................... P21 ......................... P22 ......................... P23 ......................... P24 ......................... P25 .........................

Yao-Mwera – Yao yao , Ciyao – Mwera mwe Makonde kde, incl. Machinga mvw Ndonde njd, Mawanda Mabiha, Mavia

A REFERENTIAL CLASSIFICATION OF BANTU

85

P30 : Makhuwa Group P31 G

C

P331

B F A E D

P312

P32 P34

P31 ......................... P31A ...................... P31B ...................... P31C ...................... P31D ...................... P31E....................... P31F ....................... P31G ...................... P311 ....................... P312 ....................... P32 ......................... P33 * ...................... P331 ....................... P34 ......................... P341 ....................... (* = not in map)

P311 P341

Makhuwa, Emakhuwa, Makua – Central Makhuwa vmw, “Makhuwa-Makhuwana” – Me(e)tto mgh – Chirima vmk, Shirima, incl. Kokola kzn, Lolo llb, Manyawa mny, Marenje vmr, Takwane tke – Marrevone xmc – Enahara, Naharra – Esaka xsq – Ruvuma Makhuwa, incl. Imithupi, Ikorovere Koti eko, Ekoti, “Angoje” Sakati nte, Sangaji, Nathembo Lomwe ngl (West Makhuwa) – Ngulu, Mihavane (West Makhuwa) Lomwe of Malawi lon Echuwabo chw, Cuabo, incl. Maindo cwb Moniga mhm

86

JOUNI FILIP MAHO

R10 : Umbundu Group

R11 R12 R101 R102

R103

R13

R14

R101....................... R102................... ?† R103....................... R11......................... R12......................... R13......................... R14.........................

Kuvale Kwisi Mbali, Olumbali, Kimbari Umbundu umb , Mbundu, Nano Ndombe ndq Nyaneka nyk Khumbi khu

A REFERENTIAL CLASSIFICATION OF BANTU

R20 : Wambo (Group) R215 R216

R212

R213 R211

R218

R21

R242 R217

R241 R24

R23

R20......................... R21......................... R211....................... R212....................... R213....................... R214....................... R215....................... R216....................... R217....................... R218....................... R22......................... R23......................... R24......................... R241....................... R242.......................

R22

R214

Wambo, Oshiwambo, Ovambo – Kwanyama kua – Kafima – Evale – Mbandja – Mbalanhu lnb – Ndongwena – Kwankwa – Dombondola – Esinga – Ndonga ndo – Kwambi kwm – Ngandjera nne – Kwaluudhi – Kolonkadhi-Eunda

87

88

JOUNI FILIP MAHO

R30 : Herero Group

R311 R312

R31B R31A

R30......................... R31A...................... R31B...................... R311....................... R312.......................

Herero her, Otjiherero – Central Herero – Mbanderu, East Herero – North-West Herero, Kaokoland Herero, incl. Zemba dhm – Botswana Herero, incl. Mahalapye Herero

A REFERENTIAL CLASSIFICATION OF BANTU

R40 : Yeyi (Group)

R41B

R41......................... R41A...................... R41B......................

R41A

Yeyi yey, Siyei, “Kuba” – East Caprivi Yeyi – Ngamiland Yeyi

89

90

JOUNI FILIP MAHO

S10 : Shona Group

S11

S12

S13

S16 S14

S11-15 ≈ S10 ......... S11 ......................... S12 ......................... S13 ......................... S14 ......................... S15 ......................... S16 ......................... S16A * ................... S16B * ................... S16C * ................... S16D * ................... S16E * ................... S16F *.................... S16G * ................... S16H * ................... S16I *..................... S16J * .................. † S16K * ................. † S16L * ................. † (* = not in map)

S15

Shona sna , Chishona – Korekore, incl.Tavara twl, Shangwe, Gova, Budya – Zezuru, incl. Shawasha, Harava, Gova, Hera – Manyika mxc, incl. Tewe twx , Hungwe – Karanga, incl. Duma, Govera, Mhari, Nyubi – Ndau ndc , “Sofala”, incl. Garwe, Danda, Shanga Kalanga kck, Ikalanga, West Shona – Kalanga (proper) – Nambya nmq , Nanzwa – Lilima, Humbe – Nyai, Rozvi – Lemba, Remba – Lembethu, Rembethu – Twamamba, Xwamamba – Pfumbi – Ja(w)unda – Romwe – Peri – Talahundra

A REFERENTIAL CLASSIFICATION OF BANTU

91

S20 : Venda (Group)

S21

JFM ' 2006

S21 ......................... S21A * ................... S21B * ................... S21C * ................... S21D * ................... S21E * ................... S21F *.................... (* = not in map)

Venda ven , Tshivenda – Phani – Ilafuri, West Venda – Manda, Central Venda – Mbedzi, East Venda – Tavhatsindi – Ronga, South-East Venda

92

JOUNI FILIP MAHO

S30 : Sotho-Tswana Group

S32

S31 c FE S311

b a E

S301 S302 S303 S304

S33

JFM ' 2006

S301 ....................... S302 ....................... S303 ....................... S304 ....................... S31 ......................... S31a ....................... S31b ....................... S31c ....................... S31d ....................... S31E....................... S311 (=S31d) ......... S32 ......................... S32a * .................... S32b * .................... S32C * ................... S32D * ................... S32E....................... S32F ....................... S33 ......................... (* = not in map)

Phalaborwa Kutswe (East Sotho) Pai (East Sotho) Pulana (East Sotho) Tswana tsn, Setswana – Central Tswana, incl. Rolong, Ngwaketse – East Tswana, incl. Kgatla, Tlokwa – North Tswana, incl. Tawana, Ngwato, Kwena – see Kgalagadi S311 – South Tswana, incl. Thlaping, Thlaro Kgalagadi xkv , Sekgalagadi, Qhalaxari Northern Sotho nso, Sesotho sa Leboa, Sepedi – Pedi, Masemola, Tau, Koni – Lobedu, Kgaga – Gananwa, Tlokwa – Kopa, Ndebele-Sotho – Birwa brl – Tswapong two Southern Sotho sot, Sesotho

A REFERENTIAL CLASSIFICATION OF BANTU

93

S40 : Nguni Group S44

S408 S43

S407

S42 S403 S41

B A D

C

S402 S405 S404 JFM ' 2006

S401 *.. † S402 ....... S403 ....... S404 ....... S405 ....... S406 * .. † S407 .......

Old Mfengu, Fingo Bhaca, Baca Hlubi Phuthi Nhlangwini Lala South Ndebele nbl, Isikhethu, “Southern Transvaal Ndebele”, incl. Nrebele, Ndzundza S408 ....... Sumayela Ndebele, “Northern Transvaal Ndebele” S41 ......... Xhosa xho, Isixhosa, “Kaffir” S41A * ... – Mpondo, Pondo S41B * ... – Xesibe (* = not in map)

S41C *... S41D *... S41E * ... S41F * ... S41G *... S41H *... S41I * .... S42 ........ S42A...... S42B ...... S42C ...... S42D...... S43 ........ S44 ........

– Bomwana – Gaika – Gcaleka – Thembu – Mpondomise – Ndlambe – Hlubi (in former Ciskei) Zulu zul , Isizulu – KwaZulu-Natal Zulu – Transvaal Zulu – Qwabe – Cele Swati ssw, Swazi, Siswati, Ngwane Ndebele of Zimbabwe nde, Sindebele

94

JOUNI FILIP MAHO

S50 : Tswa-Rhonga Group S51 S53

S511 S54

JFM ' 2006

S51 ......................... S51A * ................... S51B * ................... S511 ....................... S52 ......................... S53 ......................... S53A * ................... S53B * ................... S53C * ................... S53D * ................... S53E (=S52) * ....... S53F *.................... S53G * ................... S53H * ................... S54 ......................... (* = not in map)

Tswa tsc , Xitswa – Dzibi – Dzonga Hlengwe see Changana S53 Changana tso, Xichangana, Tsonga – Xiluleke – N’walungu – Hlave – Nkuna – Gwamba – Nhlanganu – Djonga, Jonga – Bila Rhonga rng, Xironga, incl. Konde, Ssonga, Xonga

A REFERENTIAL CLASSIFICATION OF BANTU

95

S60 : Copi Group

S62 S61

JFM ' 2006

S61 ......................... Copi cce, Cicopi S611 * ................ ?† Lenge S62 ......................... Tonga toh, Gitonga, Shengwe (* = not in map)

96

JOUNI FILIP MAHO

‘New’ languages in the Bantu area

A20A A70A

C30A G40A D20B JE10A G40B,C,D,E,H C30B

(D20A?)

H10B H10A

G20A G40G

G40F

G40C

M40A

N40A

S50A S40A,B,C

JFM ' 2006

A REFERENTIAL CLASSIFICATION OF BANTU

A20A ..................... A70A ..................... C30A...................... C30B...................... D20A ..................... D20B.................... † G20A ..................... G40A ..................... G40B...................... G40C...................... G40D ..................... G40E...................... G40F ...................... G40G ..................... G40H ..................... H10A ..................... H10B...................... H10C *................... JE10A .................... L30A * ................... M40A ..................... N40A ................... † S30A ...................... S40A ......................

Jo Ewondo Populaire, Pidgin A70 Bangala bxg Lingala lin Gengele Vamba Ma’a mhd , Kimbugu cha Ndani, Inner/Mixed Mbugu Asian Swahili, Kibabu Cutchi-Swahili ccl Kisetla sta, Settla, Settler Swahili Engsh Sheng Shaba Swahili, Katanga Swahili, Lubumbashi Swahili Ngwana swc, Kingwana, Congo Swahili KiKAR, Kikeya Kituba ktu, Kikongo ya Leta Munukutuba mkw, Monokutuba Habla Congo (used in Cuba), Habla Bantu Runyakitara (artificial) Pidgin Chiluba Town Bemba Chikunda Pretoria-Sotho Fanagalo fng , Basic Bantu, “Kitchen Kafir”, incl. Chikabanga (Zambia), Chilapalapa (Zimbabwe) S40B ...................... Iscamtho cmt S40C .................... † Shalambombo, Salambom S50A ...................... Pretoria-Tsonga (* = not in map)

97

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